against corn trade and for industry

Posted on July 27th, 2008 by admin and filed under Uncategorized


The author of the “Examination of Colbert’s Ministry,” (Bruni, formerly Director of the India Company), thinks that corn, in a state where the arts flourish, should be an object of internal regulation, but never, from its nature, an object of commerce.

The same author says: “A state ought not to encourage cultivation with the immediate view of selling to another, but to do every thing in its power to encourage cultivation for home consumption. — In the system of interior consumption, the sate reckons two subjects (the one the seller, the other the purchaser), and clearly two benefits; since it is in the same state that the value of the property which is sold is formed, and becomes a firsts benefit; and also that labour has produced the value of industry, which has bought the value of subsistence, which is a second benefit of the same sort.

“A country which sells its provisions,when it might support labourers, its subjects, with them, gives to another its own population.”

M. Necker, on the same principles, adds: “It is Poland, degraded by a feudal government, that sells its grain to the industrious Dutch; it is Africa, ignorant and barbarous, that sells hers to Marseilles; it is infant America that sells her corn to full-grown Europe; it is France, enlightened by Colbert, that consumes hers herself.– I has been objected, that manufactories divert men from the cultivation of the earth, by offering them occupations more attractive. The reply is, that artizans are supported only by those superfluous provisions, which could not exist without cultivation; thus the arts are not the rivals of agriculture, but its encouragement and its reward. The colonies of a state, in order properly to answer the views of their possessor, should cultivate productions heterogeneous to those of the mother-country, but necessary or useful to its consumption; and should depend upon it for its subsistence, and for other objects of the first necessity. It is upon the exact observance of this conduct that their utility depends.”

from Memoirs of a Traveller, Now in Retirement, by Louis Dutens, R. Phillips [etc.], 1806, pp. 42-45.

typed by me, was impossible to select the proper text from “text view” of Google, and was full of spelling errors

Posted on Sunday, July 27th, 2008 at 2:19 AM and is filed under Uncategorized. RSS 2.0 feed.

imports of Moldavia, Wallachia

Posted on July 27th, 2008 by admin and filed under Uncategorized

CAVIARE (ickari) is made in Russia from the roe of sturgeons, belugas, and many other fish. The roe is separated from the skin which encloses it, salted, and, after eight days, pepper and finely minced onions are added. It is then dried, and serves as a relisher with toasted bread or bread and butter. The best caviare is tliat from the Crimea. From Kerch and Jenikale, in that province, 1500 barrels are au- nually exported to Moldavia and the countries on the Danube.

from The Popular Encyclopedia, by Daniel Keyte Sandford, Alexander Whitelaw, Thomas Thomson, Allan Cunningham, Blackie & Son, 1836, p. 112.

Posted on Sunday, July 27th, 2008 at 1:48 AM and is filed under Uncategorized. RSS 2.0 feed.

grains, cattle, wax

Posted on July 27th, 2008 by admin and filed under Uncategorized

738. The agriculture of Moldavia and Wattachia, two of the most northerly provinces of European Turkey, has been given by various authors, as Carra, Bauer, and Thornton. The climate of those provinces is very severe in winter. Spring begins in April ; summer in June ; and in July and August the days are excessively hot, and the nights cold. Heavy rains begin in September, and snows in November. The surface is generally mountainous ; but the vallies dry and rich. The usual grains are cultivated, and also maize. They plough deep with six oxen, and never employ manure. They take a crop, and leave the land to rest alternately. The corn is trodden out by horses, and then laid up in pits. Flax and hemp are sown for local manufacture. Newly broken-up lands are planted with cabbages, which grow to a great size. The vine is cultivated on the southern declivities of hills, and the wine is said to equal that of Hungary. The mulberry is cultivated for the silkworm ; and forests are extensive on the mountains. The common fruit trees are abundant, and an excellent variety of apple, called the doiniasca, grows wild. The olive and fig are too delicate for the climate.

739. But the pasture lands are the most valuable parts of these provinces. The oxen are large and fleshy, and so numerous, that they form a principal article of export to Russia, Poland, and Germany. The buffalo thrives better here than in most parts of Europe ; and is valued for its strength and milk. The sheep winter on the Danube, and pass the summer on the Carpathian mountains ; their mutton is excellent, and the annual exportation of the wool into Germany is very considerable. There arc various breeds of horses ; they are brought up in great numbers, for the Austrian and Prussian cavalry. They arc well formed, spirited, docile, and remarkable for the soundness of their hoofs. The carriage and draught horses are small but active, and capable of resisting fatigue. They live in the open air in all seasons, though in winter they arc often attacked by wolves. Domestic fowls and game abound, especially hares. The honey and wine are of the finest quality. One author (Curra) mentions a kind of green wax, which, when m
ade into tapers, diffuses an excellent perfume when lighted. Many of the cottages partake of the Swiss character, and are more picturesque than those of Hungary or Russia (Jig. HO.)

from: An Encyclop√¶dia of Agriculture: Comprising the Theory and Practice of … by John Claudius Loudon, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, p. 122

Posted on Sunday, July 27th, 2008 at 1:36 AM and is filed under Uncategorized. RSS 2.0 feed.