the celebrated Stephen, 1829

Posted on September 16th, 2009 by admin and filed under Uncategorized
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London literary gazette, Volume 13

pp. 253 sqq.: review of History of Russia and Peter the Great, by General Count Philip de Segur, London, 1829

“Ivan III. wished to be independent out of domains and autocrat within he had therefore numerous enemies among his and his subjects but he succeeded in uniting by turns all these enemies against a one and thus successively subdued the one the other It was necessary for him to Kasan and the Golden Horde to which was yet tributary the great communities Russian republics of Novgorod Pskof Viatka which affected a sovereignty equal to his own lastly the princes kinsmen proud of the appanages which still retained and determined to live in as masters At the same time he had repress Lithuania which was always ready offer to all these hostile ambitions republics and possessors of appanages the protection a sovereignty long the fortunate rival of of Moscow which it had straitened on west the south and even the north by seducing from it successively its great vassals Such were his adversaries For allies he made use at home of his nobles princes and of southern and central Russia inured slavery against his northern subjects were yet free afterwards he employed nobles and his old and new slaves against princes of his blood Lastly his sufficed him against his own boyards when had no longer need of them and whom ceased to fear after the humiliation of other enemies and the creation of a swarm petty nobles his immediate vassals As the Golden Horde and Lithuania his external adversaries he sought enemies for them in Persia in Sweden in Hungary at Vienna and even at Rome but the celebrated Stephen heepodar of Wallachia and Meqghli Ghirei khan of the Crimea who were placed between and in dread of the Golden Horde Turkey and Lithuania were the foes of his foes These then were his natural allies whom he distinguished above all others his Machia velian policy while it incessantly deceived them still contrived to retain them on the side of Bossia and in perpetual hostility with Lithuania till he found the favourable moment for striking it in his tnrn Such were the allies and the opponents of Ivan III.”

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